Ownership Structure and Dividend Policy in Listed Industrial and Consumer Goods Firms in Nigeria: Heckman’s Two-Stage Approach
The decision on the magnitude of dividend has been identified to be highly related to the decisions to pay or not to pay dividends in formulating dividend policy. However, literature seems to be homogeneous and focused on examining the effect of ownership structure on dividend level or probability of paying dividends. Therefore, the paper examines the effect of ownership structure on dividend policy using Heckman’s two-stage technique. Utilizing 304 firm-year observations from industrial and consumer goods firms listed in the Nigerian Stock Exchange for the period within 2009-2019, the result shows that in the first stage, only foreign ownership has a negative significant effect on the probability of paying dividends. However, after accounting for a possible correlation between the probability of paying dividends and dividend pay-out, the result on the second stage exhibits a significant negative effect with block-holders and foreign ownerships on dividend policy while institutional ownership reveals a positive significant effect. The overall results show that the lower the foreign ownership the higher the possibility of paying dividends. Also, higher dividend pay-out is associated with the lower level of block-holders and foreign ownerships coupled with higher institutional ownership in listed industrial and consumer goods firms in Nigeria.